Why do batteries discharge faster when they are cold? – Zimo News


Does the phone automatically shut down without warning, or does the car break down? Yes, it may be due to the low temperature. But why does the battery discharge faster under these conditions?

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The most common type of battery is the lithium-ion battery. There are several technologies in the works to replace it.

There are two main elements to be aware of Battery : them electrode and electrolytes.electrodes areanodeor negative, and cathodeor the positive pole, during which electronic. The passage of electrons from one pole to the other providesvitality Necessary for the device to run or charge – we’ll see later how they flow is important.

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However, in order to cycle, electrons need a medium in which to evolve.Therefore, between the cathode and the anode, there is a liquid An electrolyte called a “conductor”.This ion This electrolyte is composed of move, it is this mobility that generates current by circulating electrons. This set of electrodes and electrolyte form what is called a battery, and thus can generate energy.

A battery consists of thousands of cells working together.So when we use our cell phone For example, the circuit is in a so-called “closed” state. This means that the anode loses electrons and the cathode recovers them.In other words, it is this phenomenon that makes creation possible Electricity Enough to keep you using your smartphone all day.Conversely, when charging Batterythe chemical process that happens is reversed: This time, the circuit opens, and the electrons leave in the opposite direction.

Batteries face winter temperatures

all chemical reaction This results in the normal operation of the battery not necessarily suitable for climate extreme.At low temperatures, the battery produces much less power Run. And for good reason, the chemistry happens more slowly.Electrolyte loses its ability Conductivity. It’s more viscous, the voltage increases, so the movement of electrons from one electrode to the other is more complicated, so it’s much slower.In this case, the consumed energy will mainly produce enough hot Simple operation of the battery, so the discharge rate is faster. It is for this reason that in very cold weather it is best to store your phone in the inside pocket.winter.

If you can’t do that, know that there are also batteries, called “low temperature”, that can withstand these conditions. These cells work thanks to modifications made to one of the electrodes. The anode of the lambda phone battery is in graphiteOne Material It tends to perform poorly in winter.To solve this problem, the researchers successfully developed a battery with a new anode carbon Known as “non-graphitizable”. The principle remains the same, but this new material allows electron transfer below -40°C.

That said, this technology works for mobile phones, but for car, quite complicated. Currently, the parade method found in some countries that have experienced extreme cold events is to connect the car to electricity in the parking lot to keep the engine, oil and battery warm.

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