Academic or scientific specialization, already condemned by Ortega y Gasset, forces the specialist to ignore what happens outside of his minor field of knowledge. Sometimes, especially in the social sciences, this ignorance is also caused by ideology and hatred.
Many anti-Francoist historians are convinced (or so they seem) that General Franco enjoyed freedom of action in The Second World War looks like the President of Bolivia, and therefore all movements of sympathy for him III Reich responded to caudillo’s enthusiasm for Fuhrer German. However, the phrase that best describes Spain’s position in the SGM is the title Memoirs of Serrano Sunier: Between Hendaye and Gibraltar… For four years, Spain was squeezed between the Axis countries and the Allies, which led to several turns in Spanish foreign policy: neutrality, no belligerence (1940-1943) and neutrality again.
Sweden, Nazi collaborator
By the way, like in Sweden. The Stockholm government, chaired by Social Democrat Per Alvin Hansson, authorized the transit of military trains between German-occupied Norway and allied Finland Berlin between the summer of 1941 and 1943, which coincides (coincidentally, of course) with the period of the greatest expansion of the Axis conquests and the beginning of its decline.
Spain was under threat of invasion several times on both sides. In October 1944, this threat was realized when several thousand Macs, subordinate to the PCE, entered the Aran Valley from liberated France.
The neutrals in the First World War were not held in the same respect as they were in the First World War. Great powers tried to strengthen new allies, or at least eliminate them with the help of hostile regimes.
Hitler and Stalin they became the biggest international bandits. The National Socialist Reich invaded neutral countries such as Denmark, Norway, Holland and Yugoslavia and subjected them to severe occupation or even dismemberment. In the fall of 1939, the USSR, taking advantage of the secret provisions of its pact with Germany, occupied Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia; attacked Finland; and crippled Romania.
But the champions of democracy did not hesitate to violate international legality. Winston Churchill and Franklin Roosevelt They pressured the Prime Minister of the Irish Free State, Eamon de Valera, to make the island’s ports accessible to his fleets. After the war, Churchill admitted that an invasion of the small country was being considered.
The British Prime Minister ordered in May 1940 the occupation of the Kingdom of Iceland, a neutral state tied to Denmark through its monarch. Portugal was not protected by a secular alliance with England. In December 1941, Australian and Dutch soldiers occupied their East Timor colony; and the Anglo-Saxons secured in August 1943 that Lisbon provided them with ports and airports in the Azores.
But the most egregious intervention took place outside Europe, which explains why little is known about it.
Before Germany than England
The initial Axis victory over the Franco-British provoked uprisings in Muslim countries subordinate to the victors in the Great War.
In Iraq, born of the dismemberment of the Ottoman Empire, former Prime Minister Rashid Ali staged a coup in April 1941 against his successor Nuri al-Said and asked for help from Germany. Despite the help of the French from Syria, the Axis was able to send only a few German and Italian fighters. RAJ (British Indian Army) units landed in Basra and defeated the Iraqis in May 1941. they conquered Syria and Lebanon…
Egypt, nominally independent and neutral, but controlled by England, never declared war on Italy, and Germany did so in February 1945, despite the fact that the troops of all three countries fought on its territory.
Iran’s oil and geography are doomed to disaster. Before World War I, Churchill, as head of the navy, changed the source of propulsion for ships from coal to diesel. To ensure a constant supply of fuel, England controlled production through Anglo-Persian Oil Company… The refinery in Abadan was then the largest in the world. The Iranians supported the British, but disliked them due to their arrogance and the fact that the benefits they received from oil were meager.
Since 1925, the country’s emperor has been Reza Pahlavi, a military eccentric who overthrew the previous emperor in 1921. Like Kemal Ataturk in Turkey, he tried to reform and westernize his homeland, for which he hired, among other things, German engineers and technicians. One of the measures consisted of change of name of Persia to Iran…
Punished for neutrality
After Hitler’s attack on the USSR on June 22, 1941, Iran became so important to two paradoxical allies, the free trade empire and the communist empire, that London and Moscow agreed to occupy them on the pretext that their government allowed German agents to be present. … Red Army forces and the Raj executed him in late August 1941. Attacked from the USSR, Iraq and India, the Iranian army was defeated in a matter of days.
The so-called Nazi agents did not intervene; Only a few dozen German citizens lived in Iran, who hastened to flee to Turkey. The death toll of Iranians, both civilians and military, has exceeded a thousand, more than those killed in the German bombing of the Dutch city of Rotterdam.
In September eighty years ago, the invaders entered Tehran. “Light of the Aryans” surrendered, abdicated the throne of its heir, Mohamed Reza Pahlavi, 21 years old, went into exile. The British exiled him first to Mauritius and then to Durban in South Africa, where he died in 1944. At that time, members of another royal family lived in this country, in this case fleeing from the Nazis, Greeks; among them was a girl, Princess Sofia, later Queen of Spain.
The Soviets, which in the fall of 1939 went along with the Germans to invaded PolandThey did so in September 1941 with the British in occupied Iran.
On January 9, 1942, London and Moscow pledged to respect the territorial integrity of Iran and to withdraw their troops six months after the end of World War II. In September 1943, the new Shah declared war on Germany and Italy. A conference was held in Tehran in November and December, attended by Roosevelt, Churchill and Stalin. Hence Iran was considered a member of the United Nations and was not occupied.
In 1946 g. USSR threatened not to leave Iranian Azerbaijan and Tehran submitted the first complaint filed by the agency with the UN. A military campaign was waged between the separatists and the imperial army, as a result of which about 2,000 people died. The allied presence meant for Iran the construction of roads and railways for the United States to send materials to the USSR. But it also caused inflation, administrative turmoil and famine in the Soviet-occupied north.
In 1953, the CIA, with the support of the Churchill government, orchestrated a coup to overthrow the prime minister. Mossadeqwho nationalized oil and reinstated the weak shah.
The Pahlavi dynasty was one of the fastest in history, although it ruled one of the oldest countries: from 1925 to 1979, when Mohamed Reza was forced to leave Iran, left by the successors of those who put him in his homeland. throne before him Khomeini magnet…